Social origin

The association between mother’s education level and early child language skills; findings from three European cohort studies

The development of language skills during the early years of a child’s life are vital for school readiness, educational attainment, and later life outcomes. The socio-economic background of parents, as measured by occupation, income, and level of education, have been found to significantly affect child language skills and the differences we see between children.

Father’s occupation, children’s vocabulary, and whether changing occupation creates social mobility in the UK

In the UK the issue of social mobility, the link between a person’s life outcomes and that of their parents, has been of concern since the 1970s. Despite many interventions and policy initiatives this link has become “entrenched” with those who are born into low-income families taking on average 5 generations to reach the mean … Read more

The Intergenerational Elasticity of Earnings: Exploring the Mechanisms

Rich parents have rich children. Why is that? This paper evaluates several different potential channels that might explain the persistence in earnings between parents and children. In particular, the researchers study the relative importance of differences in years of schooling, cognitive skills, parental investments, and family background. To do so, they use a cohort born … Read more

The association of maternal education on children’s language skills and its link to social inequality, descriptive analysis from three European cohort studies

Social inequality is a persistent global issue which many countries, governments, and policymakers aim to address. The development of language and communication skills during the early years of a child’s life are vital for school readiness, educational success, and later life outcomes. As part of a collaborative research project we sought to bring together data … Read more

Educational differentiation in secondary education and labour-market outcomes

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Issue: 2021
Themes: , ,

Countries differ in the way in which they organise their education systems. With this special issue, we want to pay particular attention to the period of secondary education, the different institutional approaches that countries pursue during that phase and the long-term consequences for individual labour-market outcomes that follow from it. Secondary education is probably the … Read more

Social origins, tracking and occupational attainment in Italy

This study looks at the long-term effects of pupils’ choices between academic and vocational tracks at age 14. It finds that while there is no difference in employability between the two groups, those on the academic track gain advantages even if they do not go on to gain a degree. The analysis is based on … Read more

Hur viktig är familjebakgrunden för ekonomiska utfall? En jämförelse av fyra ansatser

Authors: ,
Issue: 2020
Themes:

Artikeln granskar fyra ansatser att studera familjebakgrundens betydelse för de ekonomiska utfallen inkomst och utbildningsår. Föräldrars och barns inkomster och utbildning samvarierar positivt, men sambanden förklarar bara en liten del av variationen i ekonomiska utfall och är i liten utsträckning kausala. Den starka kopplingen mellan syskons utfall ger däremot skäl att tro att familjebakgrunden, i … Read more

Social origins, track choices and labour-market outcomes: evidence from the French case

This paper examines the consequences of following an academic versus vocational path in upper secondary school in France in terms of job attainment and earnings at the entrance into the labour market. Using rich nationally representative longitudinal data running from the beginning of secondary education until entrance into the labour market, the researchers identify the … Read more

Trends in Absolute Income Mobility in North America and Europe

This paper looks at trends in social mobility in eight wealthy countries and finds significant differences between them. It compares the real incomes of parents and children born between 1960 and 1987, linking the two generations where possible. Where this is not possible, absolute movements between generations are inferred by combining information on moves up … Read more

Measuring educational inequality of opportunity: pupil’s effort matters

This research uses a specially-designed survey in secondary schools in rural Bangladesh to look at the role of student effort in educational achievements and as a factor in overcoming disadvantage and inequality. The researchers looked at the test results of Bangladeshi schoolchildren in mathematics and English and evaluated the importance of effort relative to their … Read more